Ronald Cohen and Elmer R. Service (eds.) Origins of the State. (1978). Introduction.

Main Argument: Cohen & Service look at traditionally held view of state formation including the conflict and integration traditions. They hold that most scholars are now taking a view that synthesises the two schools of thought.
Key Definitions:
State [anthropology]: society or polity; any organized social system (Lowie 1927)
State [Koppers 1963]: any human group that occupies a territory
State [Cohen]: Any and all variations of power, authority structure and values that support the organizational framework of society
*  Note Cohen critiques the previous views for being too general
== Notes ==
Theories of state formation:
*  State and society are not synonymous
*  Definitions of state are based on (a) stratification; (b) authority structures; (c) diagnostic traits
(a) stratification:
*  Correlation between the rise of states and establishment of permanent social classes
(b) authority structures:
*  Structure of government –> centralized and hierarchical system of authority relations in which local political units lose autonomy
*  State as centralized and hierarchical –> transactions of information (Wright & Johnson 1975)
(c) diagnostic traits:
*  Fission between parts of the unit
Theories of state formation:
•     Two schools: conflict and integration (structural-functionalist view)
Conflict: (Dahrendorf 1959)
*  Centralization of government institutions arises out of competition between groups [6]
*  Conflicts between states and non-state polities are most significant cause of emergence of secondary states
Integrative: (Service 1975)
*  Increased capacities the state systems have for coordinating and organizing large numbers of people of different ethnicities [6]
*  Movement toward a synthesis between the two –> state is viewed as a systematic process
*  State formation is the output of a number of factors –> multiple roads to statehood
*  Cohen thinks this clouds the issue of causality
Pathways to Statehood: [10-11]
*  Interaction between nomad and agriculturalists
*  Sedentary agriculturalists aggregate into walled towns to defend themselves from attacks from neighboring state systems
*  If the state has a weak capacity for harnessing energy, the resulting secondary state will be unstable
*  Macro perspective on state formation [Carneiro]: states are forming, absorbing one another and dying out [14] –> biological principle of mutual exclusivity