Charles Lindblom, “Still muddling, not yet through”, Public Administration Review 39 (1959), pp. 517-529.

Key point: makes a case for incremental politics. Lindblom claims that incremental politics ordinarily offers the best chance of introducing into the political system those changes and those change-producing intermediate changes that a discontented citizen might desire – it is a way of smuggling changes into the political system. Frequent incremental change can also introduce more rapid change than occasional large policy changes.


*argues for disjointed analysis, which is marked by a mutually supporting set of simplifying and focusing strategems of which simple incremental analysis (i.e. analysis limited to the consideration of alternative policies all of which are only incrementally different from the status quo) is only one type. Others include:

**limitation of analysis to a few somewhat familiar policy alternatives.

**an intertwining of analysis of policy goals and other values with the empirical aspects of the problem.

**a greater analytical preoccupation with ills to be remedied than positive goals to be sought.

**a sequence of trials, errors, and revised trials.

**analysis that explores only some, not all, of the important possible consequences of a considered alternative.

**fragmentation of analytical work to many (partisan) participants in policy making.