George Hendrik von Wright, Explanation and Understanding (2004 [1971]), Chapter 1.

Summary: scientific inquiry (seen broadly) presents two main aspects: ascertaining and discovering facts (descriptive science); and the construction of hypotheses and theories (theoretical science). Theory-building serves two main purposes: prediction and explanation. (1) Two main traditions can be distinguished in the history of ideas: Aristotelian (teleological and finalistic) and Galilean (causal and mechanistic). (2) This paper looks at recent (mid-19th century onwards) developments in these two traditions with regard to methodology. (3)