Alexander George and Andrew Bennett, Case Studies and Theory Development (2005).

Key point: contributes to the methodological dialogue by focussing on the comparative advantages of case study methods and on these method’s ability to contribute to the development of theories that can accommodate various forms of complex causality. In particular, they advocate for process-tracing.

Process-tracing may be used to test whether the residual differences b/w two similar cases were causal or spurious in producing a difference in these cases’ outcomes. Or the intensive study of one deviant case may provide significant theoretical insights. Process-tracing can perform a heuristic function as well, generating new variables or hypotheses on the basis of sequences of events observed inductively in case studies.