Nancy Bermeo, “What the democratization literature says – or doesn’t say – about postwar democratization,” Governance 9 (2003), pp. 159-177.

Summary: Literature review of postwar democratization – focused primarily on Africa. Seeks to address the question what does the construction of a stable postwar democracy require? For Bermeo, it is basically two things: i) raise the cost of violent competition, and ii) lower the costs of electoral competition.  The first requires the neutralization of all violent groups.  Can be done by taking action against any individual who participates in political violence, and through politicians distancing themselves from it.  Non-state actors can contribute as well, as both the international arena and the mobilization of domestic civil society groups can contribute to higher costs of violent competition.  As for electoral competition, there are many options.  Pacts contribute positively, but there are key institutions that lower electoral risk: Federalism, robust political parties (and thus, appropriate electoral laws), civil society (esp. its nature as tolerant, non-violent and supportive of democracy) and finally wealth and its distribution. The remainder of the article examines the context of African states.