Adam Przeworski et. al. Democracy and Development. Political institutions and wellbeing in the world, 1950-1990 (2000), Chapters 1, 2.


===Chapter 1: Democracies and Dictatorships===

Rules for classifying a regime as a dictatorship. If one of the following conditions holds:

* 1) (Executive Selection) The chief executive is not elected

* 2) (Legislative Selection) The legislature is not elected

* 3) (Party) There is no more than one party, or if incumbents close the legislature and re-write rules in their favour

* 4) (Alternation) (Only applies to those regimes which have passed the first three conditions) \”The incumbents will have or already have held office continuously by virtue of elections for more than two terms or have held office without being elected for any duration of their current tenure in office, and until today or until the time when they were overthrown they had not lost an election\” (29)


In addition, democracies are classified as: parliamentary, mixed, or presidential.

Dictatorships were defined using the following typologies:

* mobilizing vs. exclusionary

* number of formal powers (executives, legislatures, and parties): (suggests the existence of formal rules)

* Whether the dictatorship codifies and announces the rules it intends to apply to its subjects or governs without such rules.


This is a minimalist and procedural definition of democracy, and Przeworski makes no apologies for this.

* Also, there can be no regime where there is no state – so countries involved in civil war are not counted


Briefly assesses Huntingtons wave thesis – did each transition make it more likely that another transition in the same direction would follow?

* Paints a quick picture of the state of the world


=== Chapter 2: Economic Development and Political Regimes===

* incidence of democracy is related to the level of economic development

* economic development is by far the best predictor of political regimes

* endogenous vs. exogenous expalanations for emergent democracies