F. Cheru, “Structural adjustment, primary resource trade and sustainable development”, World Development 20 (1992), pp. 498-512.

_Summary: _ Food shortages, growing indebtedness and the environmental crisis in sub-Saharan Africa cannot be understood in isolation from structural adjustment policies. These short-term policies, designed to improve commodity exports to generate foreign exchange, often conflict with long-term development needs. For sustainable development to occur, there must be a fundamental reorientation of government policies and resources toward solving rural problems. Policy reform needs to be accompanied by improved measures to compensate for shortfalls in commodity export earnings caused by factors outside their control. Finally, significant debt write-offs by bilateral and multilateral agencies are crucial if sub-Saharan Africa is to resume a steady path of development.



== Notes ==

* Export led agriculture brings in foreign exchange which allows for domestic prestige projects – highways, palaces, churches, stadiums, etc.  Thus investing in coffee makes more sense than sorghum or cassava.

* Connection between the problems facing SSA governments and the structural adjustment programs, which emphasize short term mono-issue development, and not sustainable development which is required