Mitchell Seligson and J. Passé-Smith, Development and Underdevelopment: the political economy of underdevelopment (1993).

=== Lawrence Harrison – Underdevelopment Is a State of Mind ===

* What explains the gap between the low-income and the industrialized countries? Is it imperialism or dependency?

* Harrison argues that “the almost exclusive focus on ‘imperialism’ and ‘dependency’ to explain underdevelopment has encouraged the evolution of a paralyzing and self-defeating mythology.” (174)

* Harrison’s belief is that “the society that is most successful at helping its people – all its people – realize their creative potential is the society that will progress the fastest.” (175)

* Society must “encourage the expression of human creative capacity” Harrison gives a list of seven ways on p 176

* What values are required to foster the conditions that facilitate the expression of human creative capacity – and development?

** 1) world view’s time focus – Orientation towards the future implies the possibility of change and progress (177)

**2) the extent to which the world view encourages rationality – can human beings know the world, or is it explained through the supernatural? (177-178)

**3) the concepts of equality and authority it propagates (177-178)

*These three factors “play an important role in the way society develops: (1) the extent of identification with others, (2) the rigor of the ethical system, and (3) attitudes about work.” (179)


===Alex Inkeles & David H. Smith – Becoming Modern ===

* development requires a transformation in the very nature of man (160) – a shift from “traditionalism to individual modernity”

* the research aims to delineate the elements of such personal change


Defining and Measuring Individual Modernity

* Modern man is:

**1) an informed participant citizen

**2) a marked sense of personal efficacy

**3) highly independent and autonomouse in his relations to traditional sources of influence

**4) ready for new experiences and ideas – open-minded and cognitively flexible


The Social Significance of Individual Modernization

*we see the process of individual modernization as one requiring a basic personal engagement between the individual and his milieu (162)

* they believe that a change in attitudes and values to be one of the most essential preconditions for substantial and effective functioning of those modern institutions which most of the more ‘practical’ programs of development hope to establish. (164)

* “underdevelopment is a state of mind” (164)

* “neither rapid economic growth nor effective government can develop, or, if introduced, will be long sustained, without the widespread diffusion in the rank and file of the population those qualities we have identied as those of the modern man.” (166)

** There is no necessary causal relationship – man may be modern because of modernity, not modern because of man



===Herman Kahn – The Confucian Ethic of Economic Growth ===

* Analyzing Confucian socieities in the same vein as Protestant (a la Weber)

* Confucian societies promote “sobriety, a high value on education, a desire for accomplishment at various skills, and seriousness about tasks, job, family and obligations (170)

* Confucian society is hierarchic, and promotes cooperation as opposed to confrontation

* He believes that “the creation of dedicated, motivated, responsible, and edicated individuals and the enhanced sense of commitment, organizational identity, and loyalty to various institutions – will result in all the neo-Confucian societies having at least potentially higher growth rates than other cultures” (171)



=== David C. McClelland – The Achievement Motive in Economic Growth===

* the question of why some countries develop rapidly in the economic sphere at certain times and not at others is in itself of great interest (142)

* McClelland is interested in the internal factors that lead people to take advantage of opportunities for economic growth (142)

* The need for achievement (n Achievement) – not for any recognition, but for an inner feeling of accomplishment – came up consistently in his research of free association. It has a high correlation with success (143)

* McClelland is attempting to take his research and apply it more broadly to Weber’s thesis re the Protestant Ethic

* In Athenian Greece, he finds a correlation between the level of n Achievement and economic development – JUST PRIOR to the climax of economic development.  However, the time gap is a century – so its hard to suggest that there is a correlation without doing an extended time-line analysis.

* Also, they are only studying those fragments that survived – there is no way of knowing what the prevalent opinion was of the day.  For example, its more likely that a novel written by a nobel laureate will survive a few centuries from now than a copy of the gazette.  But which is more indicative of prevalant opinion?

* Why would there need to be a century or two lag between attitudes and economic progress? McClelland does not give a theoretical reason for this


* Regardless of my criticisms, the logic holds when the analysis is done against modern nations using children’s books as the proxy

* The conclusions of the study are that “n Achievement is a causative factor – a change in the minds of men which produces economic growth rather than being produced by it. (148)

* Two additional findings:

**1) economic development

***there was a connection between the development of mass-media and changing norms – public opinion as a guide instead of tradition

**2) totalitarianism

*** there is a connection b/w ideals in children’s books (low need for affiliation and a high need for power) which preceeded every major dictatorial regime (150)


–> Weird


–> Again, we have an interesting way of seeing how cultural beliefs (or at least pyschological beliefs transmitted through culture) act to affect individual’s actions

* “we assume that these men [great entrepreneurs] were really motivated by a desire for achievement rather than by a desire for money as such” (151)


–> This is why n Achievement works – the capitalist system allows for unlimited personal achievement by the individual which is quantifiable


* “The need to achieve can never be satisfied by money; but estimates of profitability in money terms can supply direct knowledge of how well one is doing one’s job.” (151)

* n Achievement is NOT hereditary (153)

* Increaseing the level of n Achievement is an obvious way of accelerating economic development.  (154)

* The conclusion is that children must be self-reliant, independent and have high standards set by their parents.  Accordiung to McClellend, the best way of achieving this is to increase the rights of women – for this undermines the absolute dominance of the male and allows for individual achievement. (155)


* _”if a country short in entrepreneurial talent wants to advance rapidly, it must find ways and means of insuring that only the most competent retain positions of responsibility.”_