Summary: Portes is questioning the link between the psychosocial idea of modernity and national development. Modernity as it is envisioned, does not bring development. It can be divided into two types: Modernity of Consumption and a Modernity of Production. The developing world does not need more individuals who have modern values – they will merely consume more and flee the country for better opportunities, what is needed are _modernizers_, elites willing to put in the effort to building a collective modern project.
* DV = National Development
* IV = “Modernity” (Participation, empathy, ambition, individualism, secularism, egalitarianism, information, consumption orientation, urban preference, geographic mobility)
** How useful is this definition?
* “The psychosocial traits identified with modernity have positive value for economic growth
** Again, the problem of causal direction….
* Questions the links between modernity and development – three fallacies
** 1) There is a direct linear relationship b/w diffusion of modern orientations among the population and national growth: the greater the number of modern individuals, the greater the possibilities for societal development
** 2) Traditional culture is homogenous; it invariably presents obstacles to accelerate structural development
*** a) Traditional orientations vary significantly both in their general organization and in their receptivity to change
*** b) Certain forms of tradition can effectively promote structural development
*** c) Traditional value orientations persist during periods of accelerated development and lend legitimacy to drastic transformations of the social order.
** 3) Psychoscoail modernity is a major force promoting structural development
*** a) Mass modernity increases immediate consumption pressures, thus jeopardizing capital accumulation and investment in developing programs.
*** b) The secular orientation of modernity is not conducive to support for developmental ideologies.
* KEY: Modernity DOES NOT EQUAL Development.
* Latin America does not need more moderns… it would lead to more consumption and emigration amongst the able who lacked opportunities at home
* Modernity of consumption vs. a Modernity of Production – a self-centered modernity and a modernity of collective goals.
* Latin America does not require moderns, but _modernizers_
** This is where dependency theory enters.
* You can (and do) have one without the other.
* There is a trade-off between consumption and production
* Portes is not necessarily at odds with other authors of the modernization school, he is examining a different level – the individual – while the others are examining the societal level
* Portes begins with the notion of a trade off
* Traditional traits lead to the success of modernization, while modern traits cannot
* Portes puts great importance on the _external_, especially in terms of trade